Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) project has the
objective of acquiring launch capability for Geo-synchronous satellites. The
first flight test of the vehicle, GSLV-D1, was conducted successfully on April
18, 2001 when the 1,540 kg experimental satellite, GSAT-1, was placed in a
Geo-synchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).
GSLV-D2 is the second developmental test flight of the vehicle.
In this flight GSLV will place a heavier satellite - the 1,800 kg
GSAT-2 -- into Geo- synchronous Transfer Orbit of 180 km perigee
(nearest point to earth) and 36,000 km apogee (farthest point to earth). The
higher payload capability has been achieved by incorporating:
enhanced propellant loading in core solid motor
high pressure engine in liquid propellant strap-ons and second
optimisation of structural elements
In its present configuration, GSLV is a 49 m tall three-stage
vehicle weighing about 414 tonne at lift-off. The first stage comprises a solid
propellant motor (S139) and four liquid propellant strap-on motors (L40H). S139
stage is 20.1 m long and 2.8 m in diameter and it carries 138 tonne of Hydroxyl
Terminated Poly Butadiene (HTPB) based solid propellant. The stage develops
about 4736 kilo Newton thrust and burns for 107 seconds.
The four strap-on (L40H) stages are 19.70 m long and 2.1 m in
diameter. Each of them is filled with 42 tonne of hypergolic propellants (UH25)
and Nitrogen Tetroxide (N2O4). Each produces 765 kilo Newton thrust and burns
for 149 sec.
The second stage of GSLV is 11.6 m long and 2.8 m diameter. It
is filled with 39.3 tonne hypergolic propellants (UH25) and Nitrogen Tetroxide
(N2O4). It produces a thrust of 804 kilo Newton. The stage burns for about 136
The third stage of GSLV uses a Cryogenic Stage (CS) procured
from Russia. The stage is 8.7 m long and 2.9 m in diameter and carries 12.6
tonne of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen and burns for a duration of about
705 second producing a nominal thrust of 73.5 kilo Newton.
The Payload Fairing, which is 7.8 m long and 3.4 m in diameter,
protects the vehicle electronics and the spacecraft during its ascent through
the atmosphere. It is discarded once the vehicle has reached an altitude of
about 115 km.
Inter-stage structures, which connect different stages of GSLV,
house the avionics and control systems. The vehicle equipment bay housing
electronic systems like processors, navigation system, control system, guidance
system, telemetry system, telecommand system, etc, is mounted above the
The spacecraft, which is mounted above the equipment bay through
a payload adapter, is separated by a Merman clamp-band joint and spring
mechanism that provides the required separation velocity.
The launch of GSLV is conducted from Satish Dhawan Space Centre
- SHAR (SDSC- SHAR), Sriharikota, about 100 km north of Chennai.