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  Indian space programme driven by vision of
Dr Vikram Sarabhai
considered as the father of Indian Space Programme.
 
 
 
 
There are some who question the relevance of space activities in a developing nation. To us, there is no ambiguity of purpose. We do not have the fantasy of competing with the economically advanced nations in the exploration of the moon or the planets or manned space-flight. But we are convinced that if we are to play a meaningful role nationally and in the comity of nations, we must be second to none in the application of advanced technologies to the real problems of man and society.
   
 
 
Indian National Satellite (INSAT) System

The INSAT series, commissioned in 1983, has today become one of the largest domestic satellites systems in the Asia-Pacific region comprising ten satellites in service.

 
1. GSAT-7 Launched on Aug 30, 2013
2. GSAT-10 Launched on Sep 29, 2012
3. GSAT-12 Launched on July 15, 2011
4. GSAT-8 Launched on May 21, 2011
5. INSAT-4CR Launched on Sep 02, 2007
6. INSAT-4B Launched on Mar 12, 2007
7. INSAT-4A Launched on Dec 22, 2005
8. INSAT-3E Launched on Sep 28, 2003
9. INSAT-3A Launched on Apr 10, 2003
10. KALPANA-1 Launched on Sep 12, 2002
11. INSAT-3C Launched on Jan 24, 2002
 
Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellite System

The Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite system is one of the largest constellations of remote sensing satellites in operation in the world today. The IRS programme commissioned with the launch of IRS-1A in 1988 presently includes eleven satellites that continue to provide imageries in a variety of spatial resolutions from better than one metre ranging upto 500 metres.

 
1. SARAL Launched on Feb 25, 2013 by PSLV-C20
2. RISAT-1 Launched on Apr 26, 2012 by PSLV-C19
3. Megha-Tropiques Launched on Oct 12, 2011 by PSLV-C18
4. RESOURCESAT-2 Launched on Apr 20, 2011 by PSLV-C16
5. CARTOSAT-2B Launched on July 12, 2010 by PSLV-C15
6. OCEANSAT-2 Launched on Sept 23, 2009 by PSLV-C14
7. RISAT-2 Launched on Apr 20, 2009 by PSLV-C12
8. CARTOSAT-2A Launched on Apr 28, 2008 by PSLV-C9
9. CARTOSAT - 2 Launched on Jan 10, 2007 by PSLV-C7
10. CARTOSAT-1 Launched on May 05, 2005 by PSLV-C6
11. RESOURCESAT-1 Launched on Oct 17, 2003 by PSLV-C5
 
Meteorological Satellite
 
1. INSAT-3D Launched on Jul 26, 2013
2. INSAT-3A Launched on Apr 10, 2003
3. KALPANA-1 Launched on Sep 12, 2002
 
Satellite Navigation

Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS)

IRNSS is an independent regional navigation satellite system being developed by India. It is designed to provide accurate position information service to users in India as well as the region extending up to 1500 km from its boundary, which is its primary service area. IRNSS will provide two types of services, namely, Standard Positioning Service (SPS) and Restricted Service (RS) and is expected to provide a position accuracy of better than 20 m in the primary service area.

1. IRNSS-1A Launched on Jul 01, 2013

GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation (GAGAN)

The Indian Space Research Organisation and the Airports Authority of India (AAI) are implementing the GAGAN project as a Satellite Based Augmentation System for the Indian Airspace. The primary objective of GAGAN is to establish a certified satellite based augmentation system for safety-of-life applications The functional performance and operational requirements of GAGAN will be governed by the specifications as mentioned in the international standards.

In the GAGAN-FOP, all the ground elements, namely, 15 Indian Reference Earth Station (INRES), 2 Indian Master Control Centre (INMCC) and 2 Indian Land Uplink Station (INLUS) were established and integrated. In addition to the existing Optical Fibre Cable (OFC) Data Communication Network, VSAT link is also established between almost all INRES sites and INMCC. The establishment of third INLUS at New Delhi and an additional data communication network are in progress.

The first GAGAN navigation payload was flown on GSAT-8 which was launched on May 21, 2011 and the second on GSAT-10 launched on Sep 29, 2012.

 
Launch Vehicles

Today, Indian space programme has become self-reliant with the operationalisation of two satellite launch vehicles, Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), mainly for launching IRS class of satellites in polar orbits and Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) for launching communication satellites into geo-synchronous transfer orbit. GSLV can carry 2- 2.5 tonne satellite in to 36,000 Kilometer range for geo stationery transfer orbit and India was the sixth country in the world to have this capability.
So far ;

  • PSLV has twenty six consecutively successful flights out of twenty seven launches
  • GSLV has five successful flights of eight launches
 
Satellite Applications

Space has become the mainstay of national infrastructure providing vital services. INSAT system is providing tele-communications, television broadcasting, weather forecasting and societal application services such as tele-medicine and tele-education IRS System with Nine satellites in operation is providing data for a variety of application programmes such as Groundwater Prospects Mapping, Crop Acreage and Production Estimation, Potential Fishing Zone Forecast, Biodiversity Characterisation etc., In order to reach space-based services directly to the rural population, nearly 500 Village Resource Centres (VRCs) have been set up in association with NGOs, Institutes and Government Agencies.

 
INSAT Applications

The telephone circuit devices through INSAT connect remote inaccessible areas to major cities in India. The launch of INSAT-4A during December 2005, INSAT-4B in and INSAT- 4CR in 2007 have ushered in Direct To Home (DTH) television services in the country. Television reaches 85 percent of India's population via INSAT. Over 200 AIR stations are linked via INSAT network. In the recent years, Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSAT) have revolutionised our telecommunications sector. INSAT supports over 20,000 VSATs for e-commerce and e-governance. National Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange use VSAT technology across the country for instantaneous transactions. Today exclusive channels are provided for interactive training and Developmental communication including distance learning.

India has an exclusive meteorological satellite Kalpana - 1. The imaging instruments (VHRR) & (CCD) collect meteorological data and provide timely warnings on impending cyclones. The data relay transponder in the INSAT system is used for collect real time hydro meteorological data for river monitoring flow forces.

The launch of EDUSAT on September 20, 2004 heralded new era in the field of distance education and today, about 35,000 class rooms are in the EDUSAT network providing services at primary, secondary and university levels.

The satellite based telemedicine network has expanded its network connecting 375 hospitals (305 remote and rural hospitals including those in Jammu & Kashmir, North Eastern region and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, 13 mobile units and 57 super specialty hospitals in major cities).

...more on INSAT Applications

 
IRS Applications

Imagery taken by Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Satellite System has found application in diverse fields ranging from agriculture to urban planning. Crop health monitoring, crop yield estimation and drought assessment are the significant areas of application in the agriculture and the allied fields. Soil mapping at different scales with relative ease has become a reality.

IRS data has also been used for Ground Water potential zone mapping and mineral targeting tasks. The ocean applications of IRS data include potential fishing zone identification and coastal zone mapping.

Forest cover mapping, biodiversity characterisation and monitoring of forest fire is now carried out using IRS imagery. IRS spacecraft provide timely inputs to Flood and earthquake damage assessment thereby providing the necessary supportive strength to disaster management. Even in the field of Archaeological survey, the utility of IRS imagery has been well established.

The judicious combination of information derived from space based imagery with the ground based socio economic data is leading to a holistic approach for resource monitoring and its management.

...more on RS Applications

 
Village Resource Centre (VRC)

Combining the services offered by INSAT and IRS satellites, a new concept namely Village Resource Centre (VRC) to provide information on natural resources, land and water resources management, tele-medicine, tele-education, adult education, vocational training, health and family welfare programmes has been established. Nearly 500 such VRCs have been established in the country.

...more on VRC

 
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